Sunday, February 24, 2013

Mohamed A. El-Erian

Mohamed A. El-Erian (Egyptian Arabic: [mæˈħæmmæd elʕeɾˈjæːn]; born August 19, 1958) is the CEO and co-CIO of PIMCO,[1] a global investment management firm and one of the world’s largest bond investors with approximately US$1.9 trillion of assets under management as of September 1, 2012.[2]
On Dec 21, 2012, President Obama announced the appointment of El-Erian as the Chair of the president's Global Development Council.[3]
In his capacity as CEO, El-Erian is responsible for setting the strategic direction of the firm and leading its operations globally. As co-CIO, and together with PIMCO co-founder Bill Gross, El-Erian oversees investment policies and strategies for all of the company’s portfolio management activities. He is also a lead portfolio manager focusing on global asset allocation strategies, including PIMCO Global Advantage and PIMCO Global Multi-Asset, the latter of which is the firm’s flagship asset allocation strategy.
He re-joined PIMCO at the end of 2007[4] after serving for two years as president and CEO of Harvard Management Company, the entity that manages Harvard’s endowment and related accounts. El-Erian served as a member of the faculty of Harvard Business School.
He first joined PIMCO in 1999 and was a senior member of PIMCO's portfolio management and investment strategy group. Before coming to PIMCO, El-Erian was a managing director at Citigroup in London and before that he spent 15 years at the International Monetary Fund in Washington, D.C.
He is a regular contributor to public debates, including through his writings, radio and television appearances and newspaper interviews.

Background and education

El-Erian was born in New York and lived in Egypt as a young child. The family moved back to New York in 1968 when his father took a position at the United Nations. He also accompanied his father on his other diplomatic postings abroad, including as Ambassador to France (1971-73) only returning to Egypt for short visits. After attending schools in Cairo, NewYork, Paris and England, El-Erian settled in the United States in 1983 taking a position at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC.[5]
El-Erian has published widely on international economic and finance topics. He is a member of the Financial Times "A List"[6] of writers and has a monthy column in Foreign Policy. He is also a regular op-ed contributor to Project Syndicate.[7] His columns have appeared in The Atlantic, Bloomberg, The Economist, Financial Times, Fortune, Newsweek, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The Financial Express, and other outlets. His book, When Markets Collide, was a New York Times and Wall Street Journal bestseller, won the Financial Times and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award in 2008,[8] and was named a book of the year by The Economist[9] and one of the best business books of all time by The Independent.[10] He was named to Foreign Policy's list of Top 100 Global Thinkers for 2009,[11] 2010[12] 2011,[13] and 2012,[14] and was inducted into the Fixed Income Analysts Society Hall of Fame on April 14, 2011.[15] In April 2012, El-Erian was included in the top four of Investment Advisor’s annual IA 25 list, honoring the most influential people in and around the advisor community. [16][17] In December 2012, Marketwatch named him one of “30 leaders who will set the agenda in 2013” – the publication’s annual list of the people who will shape economic currents in the coming year. [18]
El-Erian has served on several boards and committees, including the U.S. Treasury Borrowing Advisory Committee, the International Center for Research on Women, the IMF's Committee of Eminent Persons and the Peterson Institute for International Economics. He is currently a board member of the Carnegie Endowment for Peace, the NBER and Cambridge in America.
He holds a master's degree and doctorate in economics from Oxford University and received his undergraduate degree from Queens' College, Cambridge. In June 2011, El-Erian received an honorary doctorate degree from the American University in Cairo.[19]
In September 2012, El-Erian was given the Creative Leadership Award by the Louise Blouin Foundation.
El-Erian is a widely recognized thought leader and, along with Bill Gross, is credited with developing the post-global financial crisis concept of the "New Normal."[20] He has published numerous articles and commentaries on topics related to the New Normal, the sovereign debt crisis in Europe,[21][22] the transformative changes occurring in the Middle East[23][24] and other matters related to the global economy.[25][26]
He has spoken at many universities, public institutions and other outlets, including the University of California, Irvine, the New York Public Library, USC, Cambridge and Oxford Universities, the Newport Beach Public Library, and the 92nd Street Y as well as CFA and FT and Economist conferences. In 2010, he delivered the Per Jacobsson Foundation Lecture[27] in Washington D.C., and in 2012 was chosen to present the Homer Jones Memorial Lecture[28][29] at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. In October 2012, he delivered the keynote Bagehot at The Economist’s Buttonwood Gathering in New York. He loves sports and has been known to appear on TV wearing the jersey of his favorite football team, the NY Jets.
In November 2007, El-Erian was the series kick-off the speaker of the MIT Egyptian Club.[30]


  1. ^ "Experts - Mohamed A. El-Erian". PIMCO. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  2. ^ "Our Firm". PIMCO. 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  3. ^ "Times Of India". 2012-12-22. Retrieved 2012-12-22.
  4. ^ Jennifer Ablan (11 September 2007). "El-Erian quits Harvard, rejoins Pimco as co-head". Reuters. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  5. ^ Financial Times: "The road from Tahrir Square to democracy" By Mohamed El-Erian February 14, 2011
  6. ^ "The A-List | Must-read views on today's top news stories". Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  7. ^ "Mohamed A. El-Erian". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  8. ^ "When Markets Collide - Mohamed El-Erian wins the Financial Times and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award 2008". Goldman Sachs. October 14, 2008. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  9. ^ "Books of the year: Pick of the pile". The Economist. December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  10. ^ "The best business books of all time". The Independent. 13 December 2008. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  11. ^ "Foreign Policy's First Annual List of the 100 Top Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. December 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  12. ^ "Foreign Policy's Second Annual List of the 100 Top Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  13. ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  14. ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  15. ^ "Mohamed El-Erian Speech". Fixed Income Analysts Society. April 14, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  16. ^ "Who Are the 'Most Influential' People in the Investment Advisory Business? The 10th Annual IA 25 Reveals Honorees for 2012". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  17. ^ Waddell, Melanie. "2012 IA 25". Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  18. ^ "30 leaders who will set agenda in 2013". MarketWatch. 2012-12-06. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
  19. ^
  20. ^ "Investing in the New Normal". October 19, 2010. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  21. ^ El-Erian, Mohamed (February 3, 2011). "Spain is not Greece and need not be Ireland". Financial Times. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  22. ^ El-Erian, Mohamed (January 17, 2011). "Europe is running fast to stand still". Financial Times. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  23. ^ El-Erian, Mohamed (February 9, 2011). "Resetting Egypt’s economy | The Great Debate". Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  24. ^ El-Erian, Mohamed (January 31, 2011). "Egypt's Improbable Path Traces Four Points: Mohamed A. El-Erian". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  25. ^ El-Erian, Mohamed (February 22, 2011). "Prepare for a shock from the Middle East". Financial Times. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  26. ^ El-Erian, Mohamed A. (January 25, 2011). "Davos Moguls Adjust to Fast, Slow, Reverse: Mohamed A. El-Erian". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
  27. ^
  28. ^ Mohamed A. El-Erian. "Viewpoints - Evolution, Impact and Limitations of Unusual Central Bank Policy Activism". PIMCO. Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  29. ^ "Homer Jones - St. Louis Fed". Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  30. ^ "Social". 2007-11-26. Retrieved 2011-08-18.


  • (2008) When Markets Collide: Investment Strategies for the Age of Global Economic Change, McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-159281-9.

External links

Shahzia Sikander


Shahzia Sikander (Urdu: شازیه سکندر‎ born 1969, Lahore, Pakistan}; is a Pakistani-American artist who works in drawing, painting, animation, large-scale installation, performance and video. Sikander was traditionally taught the discipline of Indo-Persian miniature painting, where she studied at The National College of Lahore in Pakistan, earning a Bachelors of Fine Arts in 1992. Sikander moved to the United States and attended the Rhode Island School of Art and Design, earning a Masters of Fine Arts in 1995.
Raised as a Muslim in Lahore, Pakistan, Shahzia Sikander explores the integration of Hindu and Muslim culture by combining allegories from both societies and exploring imagery that communicates the hybridity of her experiences including, her personal history, politics and sexuality. Religion is a significant element in her art as well as her personal life, as an artist and practicing Muslim. Sikander explores in particular, the role of Muslim women and challenges the view Westerners have of associating Islam only with terrorism and the oppression of women.
Sikander creates stimulating visual experiences for her audience through the addition of modern and non-traditional elements by forcing the viewer to reconcile conflicting sensibilities hidden within beautifully rendered landscapes as well as offering a wide range of stimuli from the traditional Muslim world to popular Western culture, such as mandalas, airplanes and cowboy boots and soccer balls.[1]
Sikander has held solo exhibitions throughout the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Ireland, Australia and Hong Kong. She has had solo exhibitions at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (1999/2000) and at the Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago (1998). Her work has been shown in group exhibitions at the Whitney Museum (1999/2000 and 1999), at the Third Asia-Pacific Triennial of Contemporary Art, Brisbane, Australia (1999), and at the Ludwig Museum, Cologne, Germany (1999). Sikander currently resides in New York City although her artistic practice continues to move easily between the borders and boundaries, out of which shifting identities and transnational artists are created.[2].

Early Work & Miniatures

“Initially I explored the tension between illustration and fine art when I first encountered miniature painting in my late teens. Championing the formal aspects of the Indo-Persian miniature-painting genre has often been at the core of my practice.” - Shahzia Sikander[3]
As an undergraduate student in Lahore, Shahzia Sikander studied the techniques of Persian and Mughal miniature painting, often integrating traditional forms of Mughal (Islamic) and Rajput (Hindu) styles and culture.[4] The traditional form of miniature painting requires equal measures of discipline, gesture and expression in order to execute a careful layering of color and detail. Compositionally, miniature paintings exhibit an extensive display of colorful imagery including, human forms, animals, patterns, shapes, dots and connecting lines. Miniature paintings often engage in contextual complexities such as, religious narrative, scenes of battles and court life. Sikander has integrated the techniques and forms of traditional miniature painting, relying on the layering of images and metaphor to drive her work. Her forms and figures exhibit a quality of continual morphing as transparent imagery is layered, providing a complexity with endless shifts in perception. Sikander’s complex compositions “dismantle hierarchical assumptions and subverts the very notion of a singular, fixed identity of figures and forms.” [5] The increasing approach of continual morphing explains Sikander’s relationship to an ever-changing world where opposing societies coalescently interact.
The Scroll, 1992, is a semi-autobiographical manuscript painting in which Sikander has included formal elements of manuscript painting and simultaneous views of multiple events. The Scroll portrays the intricacies of domestic Pakistani life including rituals that explore cultural and geographic traditions. Many hues, patterns and incidents appear in The Scroll, identifying Sikander’s attention to small detail, muted colour palette and understanding of architectural elements juxtaposed with the intimacies of domestic culture. The use of perspective is increasingly noticeable, exhibiting a linear movement of composition.[6] Common concerns of economics, imperialism, colonialism, sexualism and identity are also apparent in Sikander's early paintings.[7]
Sikander’s attention to detail and formalism assist in the contextualization of her miniature paintings, stemming from an interest in labor, process and memory. Earlier paintings also include elements of Gopi, or the cowherd female devotees and lovers of the deity Krishna in Hindu mythology, while figures of men are depicted as “turbaned warriors.”[8] The Gopi is portrayed in Sikander’s early miniature paintings to "locate visual and symbolic forms within miniature painting that have the potential to generate multiple meanings." [9] Shahzia Sikander’s most significant use of Gopi can be seen in a series of drawings and digital animation from 2003, titled Spinn. In the animation the characters multiply and their hair separates from their bodies, creating an abstracted form of hair silhouettes. Sikander explores the relationship between the present and the past, including the richness of multicultural identities. Integrated with both personal and social histories, her work invites multiple meanings, operating in a state of constant flux and transition.[10]

Digital Animation

“Drawing is a fundamental element of my process, a basic tool for exploration. I construct most of my work, including patterns of thinking, via drawing. Ideas housed on paper are often put into motion in the video animations, creating a form of disruption as a means to engage. I also stayed true to layering, a concept running throughout my practice. For the making of video animations, I went back to the fundamental use of ink drawings, crafting form out of color and gouache, scanning and threading them via movement. The breakdown of form also gives a stationary drawing the illusion of transformation, which as a topic has given me a lot of space to experiment and imagine throughout my work.” - Shahzia Sikander [11]
Similarly to her miniature paintings, Sikander relies on the process of layering to create digital animation. Formal elements of technique, layering and movement of the digital animations help to unhinge the “absolute of contrasts such as Western/non-Western, past/present, miniature/scale.” Sikander explains her appreciation for the process of layering in digital animation, allowing the narrative to remain suspended and open for reinterpretation. Sikander states; “The purpose is to point out, and not necessarily define. I find this attitude a useful way to navigate the complex and often deeply rooted cultural and sociopolitical stances that envelop us twenty-four hours and day, seven days a week.” [12]

Performance Art & Installations

"I think context, location matters a lot. Because location obviously in my situation, it's the space in which the work is going to be exhibited. And since some of the work I do is created onsite, it requires a different type of space, versus the smaller drawings or more subject-oriented work. So that the context becomes important." -Shahzia Sikander[13]
As a female Muslim artist, Shahzia Sikander often had to endure stereotyping among her community. The veil (a scarf often worn by Muslim women) covers the hair and neck and is symbolic of both religion and womanhood. Sikander's miniature paintings often refer to the veil, exploring her own religious history and cultural identity. In a performance piece, Sikander wore an elaborate lace veil for several weeks while documenting the reaction of her peers. Sikander explains that the veil gave her an ultimate sense of security, stating that, "It was wonderful to not have people see my facial or body language, and at the same time be in control and know that they did not know I was acting, and checking their reaction."[14]
Imagines and histories of the traditional Muslim veil occur throughout Sikander's compositions. Her larger works are reminiscent of a centuries-old Indian practice in which women regularly paint figures all over the walls and floors of their houses, using "whole body" gestural movements. Sikander uses large drawings as the basis for her large-scale installations, often requiring months to complete. "Nemesis" a site-specific installation at the Tang Museum, features a jewel-like paintings as small as six by eight inches and two animations.[15]

Exhibitions & Press

==Solo Exhibitions== [16]
  • 2009- Shahzia Sikander ‘I am also not my own enemy’, Pilar Corrias Gallery, London - UK
  • 2009- Shahzia Sikander Selects: Works from the Permanent Collection,’ Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum. New York – USA (Curator)
  • 2009- ‘Stalemate.’ Sikkema Jenkins & Co. New York – USA
  • 2008- Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, UK
  • 2008- ‘Intimate Ambivalence,’ IKON Gallery, Birmingham – UK
  • 2007- Shahzia Sikander, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney – AUS
  • 2007- Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin – IR
  • 2006- Shahzia Sikander, in collaboration with The Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia, PA, April 17-June 17
  • 2006- Valentina Bonomo Arte Contemporanea, Rome – IT
  • 2006- Shahzia Sikander, Taipei Biennial
  • 2006- Fabric Workshop & Museum, Philadelphia – USA
  • 2006- "Shahzia Sikander: New Work," Sikkema Jenkins & Co. New York – USA
  • 2005- "51 Ways of Looking," Brent Sikkema New York, NY,
  • 2005- ‘Dissonance to Detour,’ Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles – USA
  • 2005- Miami Art Museum, Miami – USA
  • 2004- Shahzia Sikander: Nemesis, The Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery at Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York,
  • 2004- Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum, Ridgefield, Connecticut
  • 2004- Shahzia Sikander: Flip Flop, The San Diego Museum of Art, San Diego, California,
  • 2004- "Contemporary Links: Shahzia Sikander." The San Diego Museum of Art,San Diego,CA
  • 2003- Drawing to Drawing, Hosfelt Gallery, San Francisco
  • 2003- SpiNN, Brent Sikkema, New York
  • 2001- Intimacy, ArtPace, San Antonio, Texas,
  • 2000- Acts of Balance, Whitney Museum of American Art at Philip Morris, New York
  • 1999- Directions: Shahzia Sikander, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.
  • 1998- Shahzia Sikander, The Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago, Chicago
  • 1998- Shahzia Sikander: Drawings and Miniatures, The Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art and Design, Kansas City, Missouri
  • 1997- Murals and Miniatures, Deitch Projects, New York
  • 1997- A Kind of Slight and Pleasing Dislocation, Hosfelt Gallery, San Francisco
  • 1996- Knock Knock Who's There? Mithilia, Mithilia Who? Project Row Houses, Houston, Texas, April
  • 1996- Art Celebration 96: Shahzia Sikander, Barbara Davis Gallery, Houston, Texas
  • 1993- Pakistan Embassy, Washington DC
==Group Exhibitions==[17]
==Awards and fellowships==[18]
  • 2009- The Inaugural Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center Creative Arts Fellowship
  • 2008- Performing and Visual Arts Achiever of the Year award presented by the South Asian Excellence Awards, 2008
  • 2007 - 2008- Artist-in-residence, Daad program (Berliner Kunstlerprogramm, Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst)
  • 2006- Young Global leader, World Economic Forum
  • 2006- John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, 2006
  • 2005- Tamgha-e-imtiaz, National Medal of Honor, Government of Pakistan
  • 2005- Jennifer Howard Coleman Distinguished Lectureship and Residency
  • 2003- Commendation Award, Mayor's Office, City of New York
  • 1999- South Asian Women's Creative Collective Achievement Award
  • 1998-99- The Joan Mitchell Award
  • 1997- The Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation Award
  • 1995-97- Core Fellowship, Glassel School of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
  • 1993-95- Graduate Fellowship Award, Rhode Island School of Design
  • 1992- Shakir Ali Award/Kipling award, (highest merit award) National College of Arts Lahore
  • 1992- Haji Sharif Award, (excellence in Miniature Painting) National College of Arts, Lahore
  • 199- Distinction Award, Thesis Project, National College of Arts, Lahore
== Literature==[19]
  • 2009- Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum. Shahzia Sikander Selects: Works from the Permanent Collection. Brochure. New York: 2009
  • 2009- Stiles, Kristine, and Selz, Peter. (Editors) Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art, University of California Press, 2009. ISBN 9780520202535
  • 2008- Shpungin, Diana. “Delicatessen.” (Exhibition Brochure) University Galleries, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL: Nov. 9, 2007 – Jan. 26, 2008
  • 2008- CORE: Artists and Critics in Residence, c. The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston 2008 ISBN 978-0-89090-162-5 p. 112
  • 2008- Guglielmino, Giorgio. How to Look at Contemporary Art (…and like it) 66works from 1970 to 2008.” Umberto Allemandi & Co Publishing, 2008, ISBN-978-88-422-1644-5
  • 2008- Heartney, Eleanor. “Art & Today,” Phaidon press 2008 ISBN 9780714845142
  • 2008- Juncosa, Enrique. ‘Order. Desire. Light. : An Exhibition of Contemporary Drawings,’ c. IMMA Dublin 2008 ISBN 9781-903811-90-0 (Exhibition Catalogue)
  • 2008- Sarah Kent, “Demons, Yarns & Tales.” The Dairy, London, UK: Nov. 10-22, 2008; The Loft, Miami, FL: Dec. 3-6, 2008. (Exhibition Catalogue)
  • 2008- Weinberg, Adam. Momin, Shamim M. ‘Whitney Museum of American Art at Altria: 25 Years’ c. Whitney Museum of American Art 2008 ISBN 978-0-300-13933-4
  • 2007- Yanez, Isabel, “Fantasmagoria,” Fundacion ICO, Madrid c. 2007 (Exhibition Catalogue) ISBN 9788493468460
  • 2007- Anderson, Kurt. (Interview) “Spectrum: The Lockwood Thompson Dialogues at the Cleveland Public Library,” c.2007 Cleveland Public Library, Cleveland OH ISBN 0-9778917-1-2
  • 2007- Badia, Montse, “Fantasmagoria,” Fundacion ICO, Madrid c. 2007 (Exhibition Catalogue) ISBN 9788493468460
  • 2007- Bhabha, K. Homi, (Exhibition Catalogue Essay) ‘Beginning Again’, ‘Shahzia Sikander, Irish Museum of Modern Art’, 28 March-7 May 2007, c. Charta Press, ISBN 8881586428 pp. 35–41
  • 2007- Bishop, Janet. “Take 2: Women Revisiting Art History,” (Exhibition Catalogue) c. 2007 Mills College Art Museum, Oakland, CA
  • 2007- “Don’t Look: Contemporary Drawings from an Alumna’s Collection (Martina Yamin, class of 1958)” (Exhibition Catalogue) 2007 Davis Museum and Cultural Center, Wellesley MA
  • 2007- Kissane Sean, (Essay), ‘Shahzia Sikander, Irish Museum of Modern Art’, 28 March-7 May 2007, c. Charta press, ISBN 8881586428 pp. 27–32
  • 2007- Modern & Contemporary Art at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 2007, ISBN-978-0-917046-80-3
  • 2007- MoMA Highlight since 1980, Museum of Modern Art, New York, D.A.P. 2007, ISBN-978-0-87070-713-1
  • 2007- Paparoni, Demetrio and Mercurio, Gianni. “Timer 01/Intimacy,” Triennale Bosvisa, Milan, Italy. (Exhibition Catalogue). C. Fondazione La Triennale di Milano 2007, Skia Editore, Milano 2007
  • 2007- Reilly, Maura and Nochlin, Linda, “Global Feminisms,” c. Merrell Publishers Ltd. 2007 in association with the Brooklyn Museum (Exhibition Catalogue) ISBN 978-1-8589-4390-9
  • 2006- Blum, Kelly, and Annette DiMeo Carlozzi, ed. “Blanton Museum of Art: American Art Since 1900,” (Exhibition Catalogue) The University of Texas at Austin, 2006
  • 2005- Dexter, Emma. “Vitamin D: New Perspectives in Drawing” c. Phaidon Press 2005, ISBN 0714845450
  • 2005- Marquardt, Janet, and Stephen Eskilson. Frames of Reference: Art History and the World. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005
  • 2005- Linton, Meg. “Stockpiling and Dissemination,” Dissonance to Detour (Exhibition Catalogue) c. 2005 Ben Maltz Gallery at Otis College of Art & Design. ISBN: ISBN 0-930209-10-9 pp. 5–8
  • 2004- Hecker, Judith, Shahzia Sikander, Artists and Prints, Masterworks from The Museum of Modern Art, Published by MOMA, C-2004, ISBN 0-87070-125-8
  • 2004- Hertz, Betti-Sue, "Shahzia Sikander: Flip Flop", (Exhibition Brochure) Contemporary Links 2, San Diego Museum of Art, March 27- June 27, 2004
  • 2004- H.H. Arnason, "History of Modern Art, 5th Edition" c. 2004 Prentice Hall, INC. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey ISBN 0-13-184069-X, pp 750–1
  • 2004- Naef, Silvia, "L'Islam en Debats,” c. Teraedre, Paris, France, ISBN 2-91286820-3 c. 2004
  • 2004- O’Brian, David and Prochaska, David. “Beyond East and West: Seven Transnational Artists” (Exhibition Catalogue) Champaign, Illinois: Krannert Museum of Art, 2004
  • 2004- Szeemann, Harald, "The Joy Of My Dreams" (Exhibition Catalogue) First International Biennial of Contemporary Art, Seville, Spain, Oct 3-Dec5, 2004, ISBN 84-609-2370-3
  • 2004- Wye, Deborah "Artists and Prints in Context", Artists and Prints, Masterworks from The Museum of Modern Art, Published by MOMA, C-2004, ISBN 0-87070-125-8
  • 2004- Weiss, Rachel, (Essay) 'From Place to Place', "As Long As it Lasts" Published by the Renaissance Society, 2004, ISBN 9-41548-47-3
  • 2003- Platform Year Report 2003, "Packaged Paradise" Shahzia Sikander, Biennial Exhibition, Sept 20- Nov 16, 2003. Platform Garanti Contemporary Art Center. Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2003- Heller, Nancy, G. “Women Artists” New York: Abbeville Press, 2003
  • 2003- Kim, Elaine H., Margo Machida and Sharon Mizoto. Fresh Talk/Daring Gazes. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2003
  • 2003- Augaitis, Daina. "For the Record. Drawing Contemporary Life" Published by Vancouver Art Gallery. 2003. ISBN 1-895442-45-1
  • 2003- Cameron, Dan. Poetic Justice. (Exhibition Catalogue) Istanbul: Istanbul Biennial, Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts, 2003
  • 2003- Kim, Elaine H., Margo Machida and Sharon Mizoto. Fresh Talk/Daring Gazes. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2003
  • 2002- Antelo-Suarez, Sandra, et al. Urgent Painting. Paris: ARC, Musée d’Art moderne de la Ville de Paris, 2002. (Exhibition Catalogue)
  • 2002- Brown, Kathan. "Shahzia Sikander: No Parking Anytime", (Exhibition Brochure) Crown Point Press, SanFrancisco, Spring 2002
  • 2002- Contemporary Art Commissions at the Asia Society and Museum, Introduction by Vishaka Desai, Published by the Asia Society, 2002, ISBN 0-87848-091-9
  • 2002- Falguieres, Patricia, 134 Views of the World, Urgent Painting, (Exhibition Catalogue) ARC, Musee d'art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 2002
  • 2002- Hashmi, Salima, Unveiling the Visible, Lives and Works of Women Artists of Pakistan, Published by Actionaid, Pakistan, 2002, ISBN 969-35-1361-4
  • 2002- Hoptman, Laura. Drawing Now: Eight Propositions. (Exhibition Catalogue) New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2002
  • 2001- Herbert, Lynn, (Essay) section on spirituality, "Sikander, Turrell, Hamilton, Feodorov", Art: 21, Art in the 21st Century, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 2001
  • 2001- Goankar, Dilip Parameshwar, (editor) "Alternative Modernities", Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2001, ISBN 0-8223-2714-7
  • 2001- Daftari, Fereshteh, "Projects 70", Exhibition Brochure, MOMA, NYC, Nov. 22, 2002- Mar. 13, 2001
  • 2001- Desai, Vishakha N. (Interview) “Conversations with Traditions: Nilima Sheikh and Shahzia Sikander,” (Exhibition Catalogue) 2001, ISBN 0-87848-090-0
  • 2001- Chambers, Kristin, "Loose Threads", Threads of Vision: Toward a New Feminine Poetics. Cleveland Center for Contemporary Art, Cleveland, 2001, ISBN-1-880353-19-9
  • 2001- Daftari, Fereshteh, "ARS 01", Exhibition Catalogue, Museum of Contemporary Art, Kiasma, Helsinki, 2001
  • 2001- Marcoci, Roxana, (Interview with SS), Threads of Vision: Toward a New Feminine Poetics. Cleveland Center for Contemporary Art, Cleveland, 2001, ISBN-1-880353-19-9
  • 2001- Marino, Melanie, (Essay for Exhibition Brochure) Shahzia Sikander 01.1, ArtPace, San Antonio, TX, Mar 15 – May 13, 2001
  • 2001- Reckit, Helena and Phelan, Peggy "Art and Feminism", Phaidon Press, c 2001 ISBN 0714835293
  • 2001- Nemiroff, Diana. "After Arcadia", (Exhibition Catalogue) Elusive Paradise, The Millenium Prize, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 2001, ISBN 0-88884-720-3
  • 2001- Sollins, Susan, et al. Art: 21, Art in the 21st Century. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001. Essay by Lynn M. Herbert. ISBN 0810913976
  • 2000- Singer, Debra. Shahzia Sikander: Acts of Balance. (Exhibition Brochure) New York: Whitney Museum of American Art at Philip Morris, 2000
  • 2000- Kortun, Vasif. "Fresh Cream", Phaidon Press, c 2000 (ISBN 0-7148-3924-8)
  • 2000- Krug, Margaret. “An Artist’s Handbook: Materials and Techniques,” c. Laurence King Publishing 2007. ISBN 1-85669-523-9
  • 2000- Boris, Staci. Drawing on the Figure: Works on paper of the 1990s from the Manilow Collection. (Exhibition Catalogue) Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art, 2000
  • 2000- Fletcher, Valerie- Art worlds in dialogue, Museum Ludwig, Koln, Dumont Publishers, 2000, ISBN-3-7701-5046-5
  • 1999- Fletcher, Valerie. (Exhibition Brochure) Shahzia Sikander. Washington DC: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 1999
  • 1999- Friis-Hansen, Dana. Beyond the Future: the Third Asia-Pacific Triennial. (Exhibition Catalogue) Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Art Gallery, 1999
  • 1999- Gregos, Katerina. Global Vision: New Art from the 90s, Part II. (Exhibition Catalogue) Athens: Deste Foundation, Center for Contemporary Art, 1999
  • 1999- Bhabha, Homi. “Chillava Klatch: Shahzia Sikander interviewed by Homi Bhabha.” (Exhibition Catalogue) c. 1999 The Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago, ISBN 0-941548-42-2
  • 1999- Carlozzi, Annette DiMeo. Negotiating Small Truths. (Exhibition Catalogue) Austin, Texas: Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas, 1999
  • 1999- Devji, Faisal. “Translated Pleasures.” Shahzia Sikander (Exhibition Catalogue) 1999 The Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago, ISBN 0-941548-42-2
  • 1999- Farris Phoebe, "Women Artists of Color", A Bio-Critical Sourcebook to 20th Century Artists in the Americas, Greenwood Press, 1999. ISBN-0-313-30374-6
  • 1999- Phillips, Lisa. The American Century: Art and Culture, 1950-2000. (Exhibition Catalogue) New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1999
  • 1999- Yeon Kim, Yu, "Fragmented Stories", Five Continents and One City-International Salon of Painting, (Exhibition Catalogue) Mexico City, Mexico, 1999
  • 1998- Farver, Jane. "Inside and out of India: Contemporary art of the South Asian Diaspora" 1998. Published by the Queens Museum, NY
  • 1998- Self, Dana. “Shahzia Sikander: Drawings and Miniatures” (Exhibition Brochure) Kansas City, Missouri: Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, 1998
  • 1998- Watkin, Mel, On the Wall: Selections from The Drawing Center. (Exhibition Catalogue) St. Louis: Forum for Contemporary Art, 1998
  • 1997- Schaffner, Ingrid. Project Painting. (Exhibition Catalogue) Lehman Maupin Gallery, 1997
  • 1997- Farver, Jane. Out of India: Contemporary Art of the South Asian Diaspora. (Exhibition Catalogue) New York: Queens Museum of Art, 1997
  • 1997- Colpit, Frances, Core Fellows Exhibition 1997, (Exhibition Catalogue) Houston, Texas: Glassell School of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, 1997
  • 1997- Phillips, Lisa and Louise Neri, 1997 Biennial. (Exhibition Catalogue) New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1997
  • 1996- Pagel, David. Core Fellows Exhibition 1996, (Exhibition Catalogue) Houston, Texas: Glassell School of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, 1996
  • 1994- Hashmi, Salima and Niva Poovaya-Smith, An Intelligent Rebellion: Women Artists of Pakistan. (Exhibition Catalogue) Bradford, England: City of Bradford Metropolitan Council, 1994
  • 1994- Sirhandi, Marcella, A Selection of Contemporary Paintings from Pakistan. (Exhibition Catalogue) Pasadena, California: Pacific Asia Museum, 1994

External Links & References


  1. ^ Rogers, Mike (12/2005-02/2006). "Shahzia Sikander". ArtUS (11): 12-12. ISSN 15467082. Retrieved 10/15/12.
  2. ^ Chadwick, Whitney (2007). Women, Art and Society. 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10110: Thames & Hudson Inc.. pp. 445. ISBN 978-0-500-20393-4.
  3. ^ Gupta, Anjali. "A Conversation with Shahzia Sikander". Interview. Linda Pace Foundation. Retrieved 10/14/12.
  4. ^ "Shahzia Sikander". About the Artist. Crown Point Press. Retrieved 10/14/12.
  5. ^ Stich, Sidra (06/01/11). "Shahzia Sikander @SFAI". Review. Square Retrieved 10/14/12.
  6. ^ Kunitz, Daniel (February 2002). "Shahzia Sikander in Conversations with Traditions". New Criterion 20 (6): 40.
  7. ^ Chadwick, Whitney (2007). Women, Art and Society. 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10110: Thames & Hudson Inc.. pp. 446. ISBN 978-0-500-20393-4.
  8. ^ Leffingwell, Edward (10/14/12). "Shahzia Sikander at Brent Sikkema". Art in America 94 (1): 119–120.
  9. ^ Vartanian, Ivan (2011). Justine Parker. ed. Art Work: Seeing Inside the Creative Process. 680 Second Street, San Francisco, CA, 94107: Goliga Books, Inc.. pp. 53. ISBN 978-0-8118-7128-0.
  10. ^ "Shahzia Sikander". Biography/ Press. Hostfelt Gallery. Retrieved 10/14/12.
  11. ^ Gupta, Anjali. "A Conversation with Shahzia Sikander". Interview. Linda Pace Foundation. Retrieved 10/14/12.
  12. ^ Vartanian, Ivan (2011). Justine Parker. ed. Art Work: Seeing Inside the Creative Process. 680 Second Street, San Francisco, CA 94107: Goliga Books, Inc.,. pp. 59. ISBN 978-0-8118-7128-0.
  13. ^ "Shahzia Sikander: Gods, Griffins and Cowboy Boots". Interview. MOMA: Red Studio. Retrieved 10/14/12.
  14. ^ Jepsen, Cara. "On Exhibit: Shahzia Sikander Makes Herself Clear". The Chicago Reader. Retrieved 10/15/12.
  15. ^ "Opener 6: Shahzia Sikander- Nemesis". Tang Museum. Retrieved 10/14/12.
  16. ^ "Shahzia Sikander".
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^

Shirin Neshat

Shirin Neshat (Persian: شیرین نشاط‎; born March 26, 1957) is an Iranian visual artist who lives in New York City. She is known primarily for her work in film, video and photography.[2]


She is the fourth of five children of wealthy parents, brought up in the religious town of Qazvin in north-western Iran.[3] Neshat's father was a physician and her mother a homemaker. Neshat has stated about her father, “He fantasized about the west, romanticized the west, and slowly rejected all of his own values; both my parents did. What happened, I think, was that their identity slowly dissolved, they exchanged it for comfort. It served their class”. As a part of Neshat’s “Westernization” she was enrolled in a Catholic boarding school in Tehran. Through her father’s acceptance of Western ideologies came an acceptance of a form of western feminism. Neshat’s father encouraged each of his daughters to “be an individual, to take risks, to learn, to see the world", and he sent his daughters as well as his sons to college to receive their higher education.[4] Through her grandparents, her mother's parents, Neshat learnt traditional religious values.[3]


Neshat left Iran to study art in Los Angeles at about the time that the Iranian Revolution occurred. As an effect of the political restructuring, after the revolution her father, who had been financially secure and about to retire, was left without benefits and a meager salary (MacDonald 4). Once the revolution was over and the society was restructured as a traditional Islamic nation, her family was no longer able to enjoy the comfortable life to which they had grown accustomed. About a year after the revolution, Neshat moved to the San Francisco Bay area and began studying at Dominican College. Eventually, she enrolled in UC Berkeley and completed her BA, MA and MFA.


After graduate school, she moved to New York and married a Korean curator, Kyong Park,[1] who was the director and founder of Storefront for Art and Architecture, a non-profit organization.[5] Neshat helped Park run the Storefront, where she was exposed to many different ideologies and it would become a place where she received a much needed experience with and exposure to concepts that would later become integral to her artwork.[6]
During this time, she did not make any serious attempts at creating art, and the few attempts were subsequently destroyed. In 1990, she returned to Iran. "It was probably one of the most shocking experiences that I have ever had. The difference between what I had remembered from the Iranian culture and what I was witnessing was enormous. The change was both frightening and exciting; I had never been in a country that was so ideologically based. Most noticeable, of course, was the change in people's physical appearance and public behavior.[7]"
Neshat’s earliest works were photographs, such as the Unveiling (1993) and Women of Allah (1993–97) series, which explore notions of femininity in relation to Islamic fundamentalism and militancy in her home country.[8] As a way of coping with the discrepancy between the culture that she was experiencing and that of the pre-revolution Iran in which she was raised, she began her first mature body of work, the Women of Allah series, portraits of women entirely overlaid by Persian calligraphy.
Her work refers to the social, cultural and religious codes of Muslim societies and the complexity of certain oppositions, such as man and woman. Neshat often emphasizes this theme showing two or more coordinated films concurrently, creating stark visual contrasts through motifs such as light and dark, black and white, male and female. Neshat has also made more traditional narrative short films, such as Zarin.
The work of Neshat addresses the social, political and psychological dimensions of women's experience in contemporary Islamic societies. Although Neshat actively resists stereotypical representations of Islam, her artistic objectives are not explicitly polemical. Rather, her work recognizes the complex intellectual and religious forces shaping the identity of Muslim women throughout the world. Using Persian poetry and calligraphy she examined concepts such as martyrdom, the space of exile, the issues of identity and femininity.
In 2001-02, Neshat collaborated with singer Sussan Deyhim and created Logic of the Birds, which was produced by curator and art historian RoseLee Goldberg. The full length multimedia production premiered at the Lincoln Center Summer Festival in 2002 and toured to the Walker Art Institute in Minneapolis and to Artangel in London. In this collaboration, as well as her other projects that incorporate music, Neshat uses sound to help create an emotionally evocative and beautiful piece that will resonate with viewers of both Eastern and Western cultures. In an interview with Bomb magazine in 2000, Neshat revealed, "Music becomes the soul, the personal, the intuitive, and neutralizes the sociopolitical aspects of the work. This combination of image and music is meant to create an experience that moves the audience." [9]
Neshat was profiled in The New Yorker magazine on October 22, 2007.[10]
When Neshat first came to use film, she was influenced by the work of Iranian director Abbas Kiarostami.[11] She directed several videos, among them Anchorage (1996) and, projected on two opposing walls: Shadow under the Web (1997), Turbulent (1998), Rapture (1999) and Soliloquy (1999).[12] Neshat's recognition became more international in 1999, when she won the International Award of the XLVIII Venice Biennale[12] with Turbulent and Rapture, a project involving almost 250 extras and produced by the Galerie Jérôme de Noirmont which met with critical and public success after its worldwide avant-première at the Art Institute of Chicago in May 1999. With Rapture, Neshat tried for the first time to make pure photography with the intent of creating an aesthetic, poetic, and emotional shock. Games of Desire, a video and still-photography piece, was displayed between September 3 and October 3 at the Gladstone Gallery in Brussels before moving in November to the Galerie Jérôme de Noirmont in Paris. The film, which is based in Laos, centers on a small group of elderly people who sing folk songs with sexual lyrics - a practice which had been nearing obsolescence.[13]
In 2009 she won the Silver Lion for best director at the 66th Venice Film Festival for her directional debut Women Without Men,[14][15] based on Shahrnush Parsipur's novel of the same name. She said about the movie: "This has been a labour of love for six years.(...) This film speaks to the world and to my country."[16] The film examines the 1953 British-American backed coup, which supplanted Iran's democratically elected government with a monarchy.[13]
In July 2009 Neshat took part in a three-day hunger strike at the United Nations Headquarters in New York in protest of the 2009 Iranian presidential election.[13]

Exhibitions and film festivals

Since her first solo exhibition, at Franklin Furnace in New York in 1993, Neshat has been featured in solo exhibitions at the Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City; Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis (2002); Castello di Rivoli, Turin; Dallas Museum of Art (2000); Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus; the Art Institute of Chicago; the Serpentine Gallery, London; Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Castilla y León, León; and the Hamburger Bahnhof, Berlin (2005). In 2008, her solo exhibition “Women Without Men” opened at the ARoS Aarhus Kunstmuseum, Denmark, and traveled to the National Museum of Contemporary Art, Athens, and to the Kulturhuset, Stockholm. She was included in Prospect.1, the 2008 New Orleans Biennial, documenta XI, the 2000 Whitney Biennial, and the 1999 Venice Biennale. A major retrospective of Neshat’s work, organized by the Detroit Institute of Arts, will open in 2013.[17]
Since 2000 Neshat has also participated in film festivals, including the Telluride Film Festival (2000), Chicago International Film Festival (2001), San Francisco International Film Festival (2001), Locarno International Film Festival (2002), Tribeca Film Festival (2003), Sundance Film Festival (2003), and Cannes Film Festival (2008).[8]
In 2013 she will be a member of the jury at the 63rd Berlin International Film Festival.[18]


Neshat was artist in residence at the Wexner Center for the Arts (2000) and at MASS MoCA (2001). In 2004 she was awarded an honorary professorship at the Universität der Künste, Berlin.[19] In 2006 she was awarded The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, one of the richest prizes in the arts, given annually to “a man or woman who has made an outstanding contribution to the beauty of the world and to mankind’s enjoyment and understanding of life.”[20]
In 2010 Neshat was named Artist of the Decade by Huffington Post critic G. Roger Denson, for "the degree to which world events have more than met the artist in making her art chronically relevant to an increasingly global culture," for reflecting "the ideological war being waged between Islam and the secular world over matters of gender, religion, and democracy," and because "the impact of her work far transcends the realms of art in reflecting the most vital and far-reaching struggle to assert human rights." [21]

Art market

Neshat is represented by Gladstone Gallery, New York, and Galerie Jerome de Noirmont, Paris. Fellow artist Cindy Sherman was the very first person to buy Neshat's work, at Annina Nosei Gallery in 1995.[22]
Neshat is showing her Games of Desire series in Art Plural Gallery in Singapore until December 2012.


  • Turbulent, 1998. Two channel video/audio installation.
  • Rapture, 1999. Two channel video/audio installation.
  • Soliloquy, 1999. Color video/audio installation with artist as the protagonist.
  • Fervor, 2000. Two channel video/audio installation.
  • Passage, 2001. Single channel video/audio installation.
  • Logic of the Birds, 2002. Multi-media Performance.
  • Tooba, 2002. Two channel video/audio installation based on Shahrnush Parsipur’s novel Women Without Men.
  • Mahdokht, 2004. Three channel video/audio installation.
  • Zarin, 2005. Single channel video/audio installation.
  • Munis, 2008. Color video/audio installation based on Shahrnush Parsipur’s novel Women Without Men.
  • Faezeh, 2008. Color video/audio installation based on Shahrnush Parsipur’s novel Women Without Men.
  • Possession, 2009. Black & white video/audio installation.
  • Women Without Men, 2009. Feature film based on Shahrnush Parsipur’s novel Women Without Men.

Film and video

  • Expressing the inexpressible [videorecording DVD]: Shirin Neshat. 2004, 42 minutes, Color. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences. Originally produced by Westdeutscher Rundfunk in 2000.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Elaine Louie (2009-01-28). "A Minimalist Loft, Accessorized Like Its Owner". The New York Times.
  2. ^ Claudia La Rocco (2011-11-14). "Shirin Neshat’s Performa Contribution". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
  3. ^ a b Suzie Mackenzie (July 22, 2000). "An unveiling". The Guardian.
  4. ^ MacDonald, Scott (2004-09-22). "Between two worlds: an interview with Shirin Neshat". Retrieved 2012-03-29.
  5. ^ After the Revolution: Women Who Transformed Contemporary Art by Eleanor Heartney, Helaine Posner, Nancy Princenthal, and Sue Scott.
  6. ^ "Shirin Neshat in Conversation with Carol Becker and Phong Bui". Brooklyn Rail. September 2009.
  7. ^ Excerpt from interview between the artist and Linda Weintraub, author of 'In the Making: Creative Options for Contemporary Art'
  8. ^ a b Shirin Neshat Guggenheim Collection.
  9. ^ Danto, Arthur C.. "Shirin Neshat", ‘’Bomb’’ Fall, 2000. Retrieved on June 27, 2012
  10. ^ "The Woman Behind the Screen". The New Yorker. 2007-10-22.
  11. ^ Suzie Mackenzie (July 22, 2000), An unveiling The Guardian.
  12. ^ a b Susan Horsburgh (2001-03-26). "The Great Divide". Time.
  13. ^ a b c Orden, Erica. “Snapshot of a SongModern Painters, November 2009.
  14. ^ Homa Khaleeli (2010-06-13). "Shirin Neshat: A long way from home". Guardian.
  15. ^ Livia Bloom (2010-01-23). "Women Without Men's Shirin Neshat". Filmmaker.
  16. ^ Sabina Castelfranco (2009-09-13). "Shirin Neshat Wins Best Director Award at Venice Film Festival".
  17. ^ Shirin Neshat: The Book of Kings, January 13 – February 11, 2012 Gladstone Gallery, New York.
  18. ^ "The International Jury 2013". Berlinale. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  19. ^ Shirin Neshat, 1 October - 4 December 2005 Hamburger Bahnhof, Berlin.
  20. ^ "The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize". 2006.
  21. ^ Denson, G. Roger, "Shirin Neshat: Artist of the Decade," Huffington Post, December 20, 2010.
  22. ^ Ted Loos (February 21, 2012), Art Becomes Her: In Honor of Cindy Sherman’s MoMA Retrospective, Five Tastemakers Reflect on Her Influence Vogue.

External links

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